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May 06, 2019

A graph is a data structure, defined by its vertices and edges. Oftentimes you’ll see it defined as *G = (V, E)*. That just means, “G is the graph defined by vertices *V* and edges *E*”.

We usually draw them like this:

We call a graph **connected** if there is a path from any vertex to any other vertex.

A **cycle** in a graph is a path from a vertex back to itself, where each edge is only travelled once (the above graph does not contain a cycle).

In a directed graph, each edge has a direction, meaning it goes *from* one vertex *to* another vertex. We draw directed graphs like this.

Directed graphs can have cycles too, like the above one in red. When a directed graph doesn’t have a cycle, we call it a **directed acyclic graph** (a DAG). (The changed edge to remove the cycle is shown in gold).

In short, that is a directed acyclic graph. A graph that is directed and has no cycles.

A related but different concept is a tree. A tree (in graph theory) is a graph where there is exactly one path from any vertex to any other. Or, more formally, a connected, undirected, acyclic graph.

Think of a family tree.

We’ll dive deeper into the DAG in articles to come.

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